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Thakurgaon District (About, Map, And Attractive Places)

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Thakurgaon is also named after the Thakur family or the majority of Brahmins in the area. After the establishment of Thakurgaon Thana in 1800, the journey to Thakurgaon subdivision took place in 1860 with Sadar, Baliadangi, Pirganj, Ranishankail, Haripur and Atwari. Later, four police stations at Panchagarh, Boda, Debiganj and Tetulia in Jalpaiguri and Kochbihar districts were attached to Thakurgaon subdivision. When Panchagarh subdivision was formed with these four thanas including Atwari in 1981, the boundaries of Thakurgaon subdivision were reduced to the present five upazilas. Thakurgaon started its journey as a district on 1 February 1984.

25° 40 “to 26° 10” north latitude and 88° 36 “to 8 ৮৮ 36” east longitude. 52 m above sea level. Located at a height. The border of the district with India is 85 km. The climate is temperate. Annual average temperature maximum 33.5°C, minimum 10.5°C. Average rainfall is 2536 mm.

1809.52 km, population – 14,66,887. Population density per sq. Km. 751 people, population growth rate – 1.48% Population: Muslim, Hindu, Christian, Ethnic population: Munda, Bodo, Santal, Orao, Koch, Palia, Rajbangshi, Ho, Mahato, Malo, Kumar, Hari, Bhuiyan, Ganghu. Number of villages – 1106, number of mouzas – 647, unions – 53, municipalities – 3, upazilas – 5, Upazilas: Thakurgaon Sadar, Pirganj, Ranishankail, Baliadangi and Haripur. Municipalities: Thakurgaon Sadar, Pirganj and Ranishankail.

History Of Thakurgaon District

During the British rule in 1800, a thana was established at a place near the present municipality area on the initiative of a Tagore family of Tangan, Shuk, Kulik, Pathraj and Dhepa Bidhaut. Thakurgaon police station is named after them. Thakurgaon is also named Thakurgaon because of the large number of Brahmins in the opinion polls.

Thakurgaon Pouroshova

In 1860 it was declared a subdivision. Under it there were six police stations namely Sadar, Baliadangi, Pirganj, Ranishankail, Haripur and Atwari. In 1947, Thakurgaon started its journey as a subdivision of 10 thanas with 3 thanas of Jalpaiguri district of India and 1 thana of Kochbihar (the remaining 4 thanas of Panchagarh district except Atwari).

But in 1981, when Atwari, Panchagarh, Boda, Debiganj and Tetulia became separate subdivisions of Panchagarh, the geographical boundaries of Thakurgaon were reduced to 5 thanas. The police stations are Thakurgaon Sadar, Baliadangi, Pirganj, Ranishankail and Haripur. Thakurgaon district started its journey on 1st February 1984 with these 5 police stations.

Though a small district, Thakurgaon is also a town rich in ancient traditions. Just as the indigenous peoples have retained their language and culture for thousands of years, so the Buddhist, Hindu and Muslim regimes are undergoing a process of change. The existence of very ancient ponds and ghats in the district shows the traces of ancient civilization.

The people of this district have participated in all the social and political movements by connecting with the civilization and culture of other towns of the greater Dinajpur district. After gaining independence in 1971, the people of Thakurgaon district, like other districts in the Barind region, have been able to enjoy better communication and other benefits of development and are slowly moving towards economic prosperity.

Thakurgaon: At A Glance

Rivers

Tangan, Kulik, Nagar, Senua, Shuk, Dhepa, Bhulli, Tiranai.

Sights and nature Of Thakurgaon District

Ranishankail Zamindarbari, Haripur Zamindarbari, Ramrai Dighi, Nath Mandir, Jamalpur Jame Mosque, Prachin Rajvita, Jagdal Rajbari, Ancient Janpad Nekmarad, Mahalbari Mosque, Shalbari Mosque and Imambara, Sangaon Mosque, Mandagh, Fatehs. Adjacent coupes and inscriptions, Harinmari Shiva Temple, Govindnagar Temple, Kholahat Temple, Koramkhaner Garh, Balaka Udyan, Tangan Barrage, Shaslapeyala Dighi, Khurum Khua Dighi, Rajbari of Raja Tankanath, Suryapur of Baliadangi.

Folk culture

Dham songs, Bhavaiya, Palagan, Palligiti, Kavigan, Bichargan, Kovali songs, Bishahari songs, Satyapir songs, Kirtan, wedding songs and tribal songs.

Unions Of Thakurgaon District

Sadar Upazila: Ruhia, Akhanagar, Akcha, Bargaon, Balia, Auliapur, Chilarang, Rahimanpur, Raipur, Jamalpur, Mohammadpur, Salander, Gareya, Rajagaon, Debipur, Nargun, Jagannathpur, Sukhanpukuri, Begunbari.

Baliadangi Upazila: Paria, Charol, Dhantala, Barapalashbari, Duosuo, Vanor, Amjankhor, Barbari.

Haripur Upazila: Gedura, Amgaon, Bakua, Dangipara, Haripur, Bhaturia.

Ranishankail Upazila: Dharmagarh, Nekmarad, Hossaingaon, Lehemba, Bachor, Kashipur, Rator, Nanduar.

Pirganj Upazila: Syedpur, Bhomradah, Kosharaniganj, Khangaon, Pirganj, Hajipur, Daulatpur, Sengaon, Jabarhat, Bairchuna.

The main hat-bazaar

Shibganj Bazar, Khochabari Hat, Ruhia Ramnath Hat, Gareya Hat, Kalmegh Hat, Jadurani Hat, Farabari Hat, Begunbari Hat, Lahiri Hat. Fairs: Kalimela, Ruhia Azad Mela, Nekmarad Mela.

Thakurgaon District Map Bangla

Communication system

Inter-district road – 33 km, inter-upazila road – 131.88 km, rural paved road – 476 km, rural dirt road – 2982 km, railway – 39 km, rail Stations – 6

To reach Thakurgaon from Dhaka, one has to take Tangail, Sirajganj, Pabna, Bogra, Gaibandha, Rangpur and Dinajpur districts by highway. 6 luxury transport vehicles are plying on the Dhaka-Thakurgaon route. There is a luxury transport system to go directly to Dhaka from a few upazilas. Thakurgaon Sadar is connected to all the upazilas by paved roads. Besides, there is a paved road from Upazila Sadar to Union Parishad. Apart from roads, there are 39 km of railways within the district headquarters and Pirganj upazila. Thakurgaon’s internal road communication system is quite good. At the union level or in the villages, most of the roads in Ganj can be used for light vehicles. There is no waterway in this district.

Playground Clubs:

Agamani Sporting Club, Samy Sports and Cultural Group, Sarkarpara Azad Club, Town Club, Ashrampara Tarun Sangha, Babu Smriti Sangsad, Art Gallery XI, Russian Smriti Sangsad etc.

Thakurgaon District Tradition

River Belt Nature Dulali Folk culture is inseparable from the culture and way of life in this Bangladesh. Today, with the extreme development of civilization in the age of modern science, there has been a change in the way of life and customs of the rural life of Bengal. But in spite of this, it has not completely disappeared. This country belongs to agriculture – this country belongs to farmers. It is reflected in the wear and tear of Thakurgaon. Here, during the day, a tired farmer sits at the house to get a mat, lights a kerosene lamp and reads Sonavan’s book or Dewan Bhabna. The folk culture of Thakurgaon has contributed in all fields like folk literature, folk dance, Bhatiali, Bhavaya, Baul Murshidi, Marfati, Kavigan, Jatra, Jari, Kirtan, Palagan etc. Although there is a harmony in the folk culture of the whole country, it can be noticed here due to the geographical environment.

Festival ceremonies

In Thakurgaon, there are thirteen festivals in twelve months. Religious ceremonies of Muslims are Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Miladunnabi, Muharram (Ashura), Shabe Barat etc. There is no end to the worship of Hindus. Their main festivals are Durga Puja, Kali Puja, Lakshmi Puja, Vaifonta, Saraswati Puja, Charak Puja, Ras Yatra, Dolayatra, Janmashtami etc. And New Year, Navanna, Poush Sankranti are prevalent in all communities. Milad ceremonies are organized among the Muslims before any good deeds are started and any good news is received. Notable Eid, Durga Puja, Lakshmi Puja, Saraswati Puja, people of both Hindu and Muslim communities go to each other’s houses for courtesy calls and are also invited. Besides, people from all communities are invited on the occasion of weddings, Akika, circumcision, birthdays, meals etc. Religion is not an obstacle here. Sabebarat bread pudding or eating bread meat, playing mahram sticks with musical instruments or taziya procession are no longer considered as religious festivals or ceremonies. These have become part of our folk culture. On the occasion of New Year, bird hunting, fish hunting, forest food, playing with colors with spray, eating fried neem leaves, partridge vegetables etc., eating panta rice, cultural rituals of common people.

Thakurgaon Govt Women College

In the marriage ceremony of the Muslims, Qazi or Maulvi Sahib Ukil, after obtaining the consent of the bride and groom through witnesses, recites the Doa Kalam and performs the marriage. In Hindu marriages, the priest completes the marriage by reciting Vedic mantras. There is not much difference between Hindu and Muslim communities in performing rituals other than teaching marriage and some formalities. The yellow ceremony started 2/3 days before the wedding. The bride and groom go to each other’s houses to apply turmeric. There is a tradition of arranging turmeric baskets with clothes, cosmetics, betel nut, sweets, turmeric, mehendi etc. Such a practice has existed before, but now it has been modernized. Yellow kuta is used in Chham Gahine. 3, 5 or 7 (odd number) women start yellowing with one hand on a piece of jewelry. The bride and groom are smeared with turmeric and given sweets. In some cases, the visiting female guests are also smeared with yellow, the women also smear yellow among themselves. Sometimes even the colors roll up to play. The guests were entertained as much as possible. Somewhere in the ceremony of giving turmeric, kalai is broken by the bride and groom. Thakurikalai (masakalai) is used in this work. During the ceremony, women hold their throats and sing songs (wedding songs).

After the death of the Muslims, in addition to praying for the dead in ceremonies like Kulkhani, Challisha, Tamdari, etc., food is provided as much as possible. This custom has been going on for ages. Shraddhanusthan is organized in case of death of someone in the Hindu community. In this ceremony also food is provided as much as possible, but fish meat is avoided.

Life journey

In the past, there were no houses in the rural areas of Thakurgaon district. There were thatched or thatched houses and bamboo fences or earthen walls. Tin canopied houses could be seen in relatively affluent families. There were one or two semi-finished houses. Now the situation has changed. Now there are lots of tin houses, semi-finished and finished houses. The main occupation is agriculture. Landlords, marginal farmers, landless farmers, farm laborers are almost all dependent on agriculture. Agriculture is also a source of income for many of those doing business in the city. There are also some traders. A significant number of people are involved in business in various ways from shops, wholesalers, etc., from the city to the village market. There are also some employees. The total number of employees working in teaching, medical, government and non-government organizations is not insignificant. There are also a handful of workers who are involved in folk art. The main food grains produced by the farmers are paddy, wheat, barley, kaun, pulses, maize etc. The main crops are jute and sugarcane. Some have mango, jackfruit, betel nut, coconut orchards, some are farming fish in ponds. This is how he is making a living by earning income.

The main food of the people of this region is rice, fish, meat, various kinds of vegetables. In the past, people here did not eat wheat flour bread. Wheat was not cultivated. Wheat cultivation has been practiced in the region since the middle of the Pakistani rule. Bread is still a staple food. A few special dishes are prevalent in the region. Such as jute and lafa vegetable broth, siddal mash, cheng or shati (taki) fish burnt or cooked mash, young kachu leaf burnt or boiled mash, pelka These are the favorite foods of many. Prefers to eat raw mango curry, raw jackfruit curry, amsi or tomato pickle. In winter, new rice vaka (bhapa pitha), pakoyan, nunas or nunia, chitua, gurguria etc. are made. The new molasses of the eye is used to make khaiyer murki, murir naru, chira chipri. These are very delicate. The people here are hospitable. Although it is not possible to entertain guests with tea and snacks in rural areas, guests are entertained with gua-pan and bidi. In the past, coconut hookah was popular among farmers, but now it is almost extinct. Bidis and cigarettes have taken its place. Even well-to-do landlords are no longer seen smoking perfume in Albola.

The clothes of common people are lungi, genji, dhoti, towel, shirt, pajamas and Punjabi. People from polite, educated and affluent families used to wear shirts, pants, pajamas, Punjabi, shoes, socks, as they used to do in the past. Many low-income and underprivileged people now wear shirts, pants, sweaters and coats due to the availability of old foreign or local (second hand) clothes. In winter, ordinary people wear body shawls and relatively wealthy people wear expensive shawls, sweaters, coats, mufflers etc. In the past, people from educated and aristocratic families used to wear dhoti irrespective of Hindus and Muslims. The women of poor families used to wear a piece of cloth tied on the chest without sewing. It was called ‘Bukani’ or ‘Fata’. Some used to wear two pieces of cloth. One was tied at the waist and covered the lower part, the other was wrapped around the chest. The practice of wearing jewelry was there before, it is still there. But in the past, village women used to read zinc stools. Now the practice of reading stools has come up among the educated girls in the city, but not zinc but silver. The practice of wearing gold jewelery as much as possible is limited to affluent families. Being forced into a low-income or very poor family, he borrowed money at the time of marriage and gave gold ornaments to his daughter. But due to poverty, they were sold a few days after the marriage. Fake gold (imitation) jewelry has brought a lot of benefits for girls or women from poor families. At the time of marriage, at least the nostrils (nolok) of the nose, if the niden khila (nose flower) is not married. From such a belief, the circulation of gold in poor families still survives. Cow or buffalo carts were used as common vehicles in rural areas. The traders used to bring the goods of the shop to the market in this vehicle, the peasants used to sell the paddy, jute, mustard etc. in a bullock cart. People who were in a position to get a bed by spreading straw in a bullock cart with six or a topper would go to a relative’s house to eat guests or to catch a train at the railway station. The only means of transport of any kind was the bullock cart. Many made a living by renting a bullock cart. But now there is no more bullock cart or buffalo cart. Because, rickshaw van has taken the place of bullock cart. So today the songs of Gariyal Bhai are no longer heard. The melodious songs of Bengali or Hindi movies can be heard in the voice of the van driver. Now everything from transporting goods in rural areas to going to relatives’ houses, bringing goods to the market is being done in rickshaw vans. In addition, Mishuk, Tempo and Minibus facilities are now available for commuting to remote areas of the village. Motorcycles can now be seen in many homes. But in the past it was unimaginable. However, bicycles could be seen on the roadside.

Thakurgaon Sugar Mill

Apart from the aristocratic families of town and village, chairs, tables, couches, dressing tables, racks were not in vogue. Ordinary family guests were actually allowed to sit on pedestals, rope beds, (shaded with rope on low-rise bamboo poles), soup or rugs. If he was a close relative, he would sit on the bed in the bedroom. He used to feed the guests with rice. In aristocratic families, guests were fed by spreading dastarkhan on the bed. There is still a practice of spreading mats or mats, but it is very common in low-income and poor families. And Dastarkhan is no longer in circulation. Because chair tables, dining tables are no longer confined to the urban educated rich; He has moved to the house of common people in the village.

In the past, earthenware pots, dishes, lids, pans, zinc pots, cauldrons, dishes, bowls, glasses, spoons, iron pans, bamboo sticks or nails, lahi, doi or duar for pulses were in vogue. These are still being used more or less. However, after evolution, utensils made of tin, later made of steel and nowadays ordinary people are using utensils made of melamine. Glass and porcelain utensils are being used in the aristocratic family. In the past, spices were crushed on stone slabs or Haman dista, but still.

In the rural areas, paddy was threshed in dhemki or cham-gahine. The women of the poor families used to thresh the paddy of the well-to-do peasants in addition to themselves for a fee. Remuneration was given with paddy or rice. In this way they would make chira, murdi, khai etc. It was the livelihood of many poor women. Now it goes without saying that this profession no longer exists. With the advent of electricity in the village, many small and big rice mills have sprung up. Rice, chira, murdi, rice flour and even chilli and turmeric powder are available through mills. Most people buy these from the market. As a result, these livelihood women have now become farm laborers.

As the economy of Thakurgaon district is dependent on agriculture, the folk culture here is dependent on agriculture. Farmers used to go to the field with their plowed cows before sunrise in the morning without eating anything. At one o’clock in the afternoon (nine-ten in the morning) someone from the family, i.e. a son, daughter or wife would go to the field with Panta. Sitting on the aisle of the field, the farmer used to eat panta with onion and pepper and smoke it with the help of coconut hookah or chilim. I would rest and go back to work. Back home at three in the afternoon (three or four in the afternoon). After taking a bath, he would eat rice and rest under the trees and sit on the platform. Someone goes to the market during paramatma, someone does the necessary housework. At this time he does not go to work in the field. Sonavan, Laily Majnu, reading books, playing cards, making rope with jute, sewing kantha or making shikha from jute, sitting in the yard in winter, burning kerosene cups on idle lazy afternoons, rainy days or evenings. Burning this fire, all these are very familiar scenes of the past. In the mechanical life of modern civilization, these scenes are no longer visible. Boys ‘Ha-Du-Du, Dariabandha, Pakivot and girls’ Ekka-Dokka, Buri-Chin, Apanti Bioscope etc. are no longer seen nowadays.

The common people of the district use the regional language as the language of Attapur. Some educated families in urban and rural areas use pure language. Although the regional languages ​​are almost the same everywhere in the district, there are slight differences in pronunciation or speaking style depending on the distance. This is especially so in the case of verbs, such as ‘Khayechi’, the regional pronunciation of these verbs is ‘Khaichu’, somewhere ‘Khaiyu’. ‘Khayeche’, its pronunciation is somewhere ‘Khaiche’, again somewhere ‘Khaiye’.

Folk art

Thakurgaon district has potters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, fishermen, weavers, carpenters, masons, bamboo potters or domes.

Among the earthenware items are pots, jugs, pots, dishes, bowls, lids, frying pans, fish washers, tubs, vases, lamps, incense burners, chilim, idols of gods and goddesses and other animals. The artisans make daily necessities like kasetm, da, kathari, boti, sartta or jati, haman dista, haler phal, khunti, dohki, khural, bashila etc. In the past they used to make bullock cart wheels. Now that there are no bullock carts, there is no use of iron wheels, and wheels are no longer made.

Thakurgaon Mosque

Items made of bamboo include dhaki, changari, bahunka or boingha, kula, duli, chatai, flower basket, dhama, khai chalni, fan, fishing dihiri, jalanga, poloi, small bed, khatia etc. The carpenter makes chairs, tables, sofas, beds, dressing tables, show-cases, mittefs and other furniture. Some carpenters in the village also work in people’s homes. They also work in tin houses. The masons do the house work. Goldsmiths make various types of gold and silver jewelry. At one time the condition of the weavers was good. Weaving cloth was sold well in rural areas. People in this profession are now engaged in agriculture or other occupations. Yet towels, dang or daur (a type of bed) are still made. However, they now make blankets and body sheets from old wool and sell them, which is also in demand among the poor. Also many people make and sell fikazal, lafizal with thick yarn. Some people make rope from jute and sell it. Needless to say, with the introduction of nylon rope and twine, there is no longer a demand for handmade rope. A community used to make lime from oysters. This lime is used for eating with drinking. This industry is also on the verge of destruction. In Ranishankail and Baliadangi areas, some people make soup or patti with ‘matha’ and market it.

Folklore

Folklore is a major part of folk culture. Folklore, folk music, bhavaiya, wedding songs, ballads, rhymes, riddles and proverbs have enriched the repertoire of folk literature. These are basically unwritten literature. It was created to quench the thirst of the uneducated, semi-educated men and women of the neighborhood. These have been created by the mouths of the people, they have come by word of mouth. Its authors have remained hidden from public view forever. In modern times, attempts have been made to capture them in the pages of books, but for a long time they have been roaming the streets of the village by word of mouth.

Folklore Story

Folk tales prevalent in rural areas are mainly created for the entertainment of the common man. There is nothing theoretical or instructive about them. Adiras with rather coarse humor exist. Most of the stories are unrelated to reality. King-queen, jinn-ghost, demon-khoksas, lion-goat, fool-mad, such well-known stories have enriched the store of folk tales.

Map Of Thakurgaon District

Thakurgaon district is bounded on the north by Panchagarh district, on the east by Panchagarh and Dinajpur districts, on the west and south by West Bengal of India. Thakurgaon district is situated between 25° 40′ to 26° 10′ north latitude and between 88° 05′ and 88° 36′ east longitude.

Map Of Thakurgaon District

Although Thakurgaon has been a part of mainland Bengal since time immemorial and has a mainstream current in its way of life, its nature is somewhat different. At the same time, the people here seem to be very unique. The former name of this district was ‘Nishchintpur’. As soon as the name ‘Nishchintpur’ is uttered, a picture of a village suitable for living in peace floats in front of the eyes. Thakurgaon district is a city of heritage and potential with a combination of thousands of years old tradition and present economic potential and immense potential of tourism industry. It is possible to introduce Thakurgaon district in the local and international arena through effective branding highlighting the unique geographical features, natural beauty, history and thousand year old tradition of the district. As a result, if the necessary initiatives are taken to increase the identity of the district as well as the existing potentials of the local economy, it will give the desired momentum to the macro-economy of the country.

Language and literature Of Thakurgaon District

Thakurgaon as a district was inaugurated in 1983 with an independent administrative status. In the case of language, however, no such division is acceptable. However, the distinctiveness of the language of this region was evident when it belonged to the greater Dinajpur district. In particular, the close association with the daily life of the Santal, Orao, Indigenous and Rajbangshi, Palia tribes has diversified the linguistic environment. There is also the proximity of Malda, Purnia and Bihar regions of India with some upazilas in the western part of the region.

Thakurgaon Govt College Campus

The linguistic features of the Thakurgaon region can be divided into two sub-regions – first: the eastern part of Thakurgaon Sadar and Pirganj upazilas. Secondly: Baliadangi, Nekmarad, Haripur and Ranishankail upazilas bordering the west.

The source of this classification is, in the opinion of Sir George Grierson, who thinks that the main reason for the change or difference in dialects is natural obstruction. He pointed to isolation by river flow or mountains as a natural obstacle. Although Grierson’s method is not considered effective at present, it is noteworthy that there is a fundamental difference in the language of the eastern and western parts of the Tangan River flowing in Thakurgaon district.

Thakurgaon’s trade and commerce

Liberation War The biggest change in the economy of North Thakurgaon is employment opportunities in both agriculture and non-agriculture. Although the number of landless people in the dispossession process has increased due to the unfortunate, directionless economy, human labor, innovation and relentless efforts have enriched the minimum survival position. Independence The minimum land ceiling system of the then government had the opportunity to revolutionize land reform in Bangladesh, land economy and the poor, but unfortunately the land reform did not work out as expected.

Significant advances in the post-independence economy of Thakurgaon, an agriculturally dependent Thakurgaon, have been to slow down the agricultural sector by diversifying crops by producing up to three crops on the same land through the irrigation system of the North Bangladesh Deep Tube Well Project (operated by the Barind Multipurpose Development Authority from 8/01/03). To make it profitable slowly and in this case extensive production of potato, maize and watermelon as cash crop, desired success of farmers in wheat cultivation, large scale vegetable cultivation and cultivation of high yielding varieties of paddy. It is true that this has undoubtedly had a positive impact on the agricultural economy, but due to the weakness of the market system and the lack of an effective marketing system, the farmer’s household is not making a profit compared to the production.

Another notable aspect of Thakurgaon’s agricultural economy is commercial fruit production. Commercial production, especially in the case of mangoes and litchis, has further diversified the agricultural production in the region. The militant people of the region are also contributing a lot to agricultural production through fish farming in ponds and mass production of cattle.

Thakurgaon Adhunik Sadar Hospital

The most unfortunate in terms of industrialization is the arrogant Thakurgaon Sugar Mill established in 1956 and once a part of Thakurgaon district is now the burden of Thakurgaon residents. The miserable condition of the Thakurgaon Sugar Mill, which operates at a loss of crores of rupees every year, has not only endangered the working lives of the direct and indirect concerned officers / employees but has also greatly reduced the interest in producing the oldest agricultural products like sugarcane in the region. This is the plight of the sugar mill due to corruption, lack of accountability, unnecessary manpower and lack of by-product based industrial factories. The Thakurgaon silk factory has closed down due to the same outcome. The silk factory established on the initiative of RDRS in 1975 was closed down on 30/12/2002 after the government took over on 1 July 1971 with a loss of Tk. 7 crore. Corruption, lack of capital, bureaucratic procrastination and non-operation of all units shut down the most promising silk factory in the region’s economy. One hundred years ago today, Begum Rokeya identified the Andy industry as the most effective tool in the greater Rangpur-Dinajpur region in 1905. In his words, “We don’t pay attention to the business that can be run with so little capital, what could be more unfortunate than that.” Gone.

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