Panchagarh district is under Rangpur Division. The area of Panchagarh is 1404.63 sq. km.
The geographical location of Panchagarh district, located at 26-20 north latitude and 88.34 east longitude, is significant. The boundary line of this district, as directed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe in 1947, is very crooked and fragile. The Indian border is on three sides of Panchagarh district. The length of the Indian border area with Panchagarh district is 286.87 km. It is bounded on the north by Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts of India, on the northeast and east by Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts and on the west by Nilphamari district of Bangladesh, on the west by Purnia and North Dinajpur districts of India and on the south and south by Thakurgaon and Dinajpur districts.
Panchagarh district consists of a total of 43 unions and 5 upazilas. Out of the five upazilas, Atwari consists of 6 unions and Tentulia consists of 7 unions and Boda, Panchagarh Sadar and Debiganj consist of 10 unions.
Naming Of Panchagarh District
The progress of Panchagarh district has started and is still continuing through many evolutions and evolutions. There is also a traditional history in naming Panchagarh. Regarding the naming of Panchagarh, some people think that this region was a region called ‘Panchanagari’ in the ancient state of Pundunagar. Over time, Panchanagari made its debut as ‘Panchagarh’. The combination of ‘pancha’ (five) averages and the corruption of the name ‘panchagarh’ ‘panchagarh’ was prevalent in this town for a long time. But there can be no doubt that the name of this region was Panchagarh. In fact, in the Indian subcontinent, the word ‘panch’ has been associated with various place names. Such as- Panchanad, Panchabati, Panchanagari Panchagaur etc. Thus the possibility of naming Panchagarh as a part of Panchagaur according to the features of Prakrit language remains. Meaning Panchagaur> Panchagarh> Panchagarh. However, the prevailing view is that the name Panchagarh is due to the clear position of the five averages in the region. The averages are Vitargarh, Mirgarh, Hossaingarh, Rajnagar and Debengarh.
History Of Panchagarh District
Panchagarh is an ancient town. In ancient and medieval times, this land was bordered by the states of Magadha, Mithila, Gaur, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Assam. In the past as well as in modern times, the town was a border area. This territory has been ruled in stages under the direct control of the kings of Prag-Jyotish, Kamrup, Kamata, Cooch Behar and Gaur, Badsha, Subadar and the native kings and landlords of Baikunthpur Anga. Between the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, King Shalibahan, King Prithu and King Jallesh established kingdoms, cities and prosperous settlements in the Shalbahan and Vitargarh areas of Panchagarh. The Maurya, Gupta and Pala (Devapala Dharmapala) kingdoms also ruled the region.
It is known that Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Khalji, the first Muslim general to conquer Bengal in the early Middle Ages, advanced through Panchagarh at one stage of his many controversial Tibetan expeditions. Some historians believe that Sultan Husain Shah and Kamtar Raja Nildhbhaj were born in the village of Devnagar in Tentulia police station. Sultan Jalal Uddin Fateshah, Sultan Barbak Shah, Sher Shah, Khurram Khan (Shahjahan), Mir Jumla, Subadar Ibrahim Khan Fateh Jung and in the Middle Ages, Devi Chowdhurani, Bhabani Pathak, Fakir Majnushah and other historical personalities. From the formation of the state of Cooch Behar in the 16th century till 1947, the Panchagarh region was ruled directly and indirectly by the Koch dynasty.
After the partition of India in 1947, Panchagarh police station was included in Thakurgaon subdivision of Dinajpur district. On 1 January 1980, Thakurgaon subdivision formed Panchagarh subdivision with 5 thanas Tetulia, Panchagarh Sadar, Atwari, Boda and Debiganj. The sub-divisional headquarters was established at Panchagarh police station. The first sub-divisional administrator was Mr. Syed Abdur Rashid (01-01-1980 to 31-12-1982). On 1 February 1984, Panchagarh subdivision was upgraded to a district. Mr. A.S.M. was the first Deputy Commissioner of Panchagarh district. Abdul Halim (01-02-1984 to 18-06-1985). Currently
Tradition Of Panchagarh Zila
Human settlement in Panchagarh has started from the dawn of civilization. Numerous archeological sites have been created in this remote part of Bangladesh due to the long-running contacts of the Pundra, Gupta, Pala, Sen and Muslim rulers. In all of this there are many glorious sighs of the past and countless relics of ancient history. Panchagarh district has all the elements needed to make a city a tourist city. The law and order situation in Panchagarh district is better than any other district in Bangladesh. The people of Panchagarh are very simple and hospitable. From Panchagarh, one can observe the magnificent view of Kanchenjunga in autumn and winter which attracts tourists very easily. Panchagarh has the joyous beauty of a tea garden on a flat land. There is only one rock museum in Bangladesh. There is a historic post bungalow on the banks of the river Mahananda from where one can enjoy the natural beauty of the two Bengals.
Notable places of interest in Panchagarh are as follows:
1. Inside. 2. Maharaja Dighig. 3. Badeshwari Mahapeeth Mandirgh. 4. Mirzapur Shahi Mosque. 5. Bar Aulia Mazar. 6. Golakdham temple. 7. Tentulia Dak bungalows. 8. Banglabandha Zero (0) Points and Banglabandha Ground Port. 9. Tea garden on flat land. 10. Rocks Museum.
Liberation War And Freedom Fighters Of Panchagarh District
The war of liberation is the most glorious chapter of Bengali nationalism. After the historic speech of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on March 6, 1971 at the Racecourse Ground, the Bengali nation started preparing for the war of liberation against the Pakistani regime and the exploiting group. The brutal genocide by the Pak aggressors started on the night of March 25, 1971. Bangabandhu declared the independence of Bangladesh before his arrest by the Pak army at the beginning of March 26, 1971. The war of liberation, the death struggle to expel the occupying forces from the besieged homeland, began.
Panchagarh, which is important in terms of border area and geographical location, has been the scene of extensive battles throughout the war of liberation. Of the four liberated areas in Bangladesh, the Panchagarh Liberation Zone played an unforgettable role in determining the nature and planning of the war.
April 17, 1971 is an important day in the history of Panchagarh. On this day the Pak army captured Panchagarh. The well-organized Panchagarh city was set on fire and the massacre was carried out indiscriminately. In addition, the Pak aggressors, with the help of local Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams, killed thousands of innocent people, looted their property and set fire to their houses.
Adv. Sirajul Islam, then Member of Parliament of the Provincial Council, served as a non-military adviser during the War of Liberation in Sector 6A under Sector 6. Bay Military Advisers Adv. Sirajul Islam, Adv. Kamaruddin Ahmed (MLA), Adv. Mosharraf Hossain Chowdhury (MLA), Kazi Habibur Rahman, Tentulia, Abdul Jabbar and others led the freedom fighters. Guerrilla and frontal fighting started against the forces of Razakar, Al-Badr, Al-Shams. In this area 40 liberation war units under 8 companies formed resistance against the Pak army. Mahbub Alam is one of the notable freedom fighter company commanders. The other commanders are, Md. Matiar Rahman, Md. Tariqul Islam. Md. Mokleshar Rahman, Md. Dulal Hossain, Abdur Rahman and Abdul Gani. Besides, the regional commander of Bangladesh Liberation Force (BLF) was prominent student leader Nazim Uddin Ahmed. On 28 November the freedom fighters launched a stormy attack on the Pak army from four directions and on 29 November Panchagarh was liberated by the Pak aggressors. The independent sovereign state of Bangladesh was mapped on the world map by surrendering the Pak aggressor forces on 16 December 1971 at the racecourse ground in exchange for the blood of millions of martyrs.
Language And Culture Of Panchagarh District
At present the terminology prevalent in the Panchagarh region is basically a slightly modified form of Prakrit and ancient Bengal. Phrases like Pali, Prakrit, Ancient Central Bengal and Brajbuli-Assamese-Hindi-Bihari etc. are more prevalent in this region.
The Nazrul Library, established in 1956, became the center of cultural practice in Panchagarh. With a rich collection of innumerable books, maps, encyclopedias, essays, etc., this library was an invaluable pilgrimage site for the study of knowledge, science, literature and culture of the Panchagarh region. During the War of Liberation, the Pakistan Army burned many valuable books and encyclopedias in the library.
Trade And Business Of Panchagarh District
Although Panchagarh is the northernmost district of Bangladesh, the first large scale industry in the district was established in 1969 with the establishment of Panchagarh Sugar Mills Ltd. Later, many agro-based industries were established in the district. Here is a brief overview of some of the important industrial and commercial organizations:
Panchagarh Sugar Mill Ltd.
Panchagarh Sugar Mills Ltd. was established in 1969 on 198.46 acres of land in Panchagarh Sadar Upazila. The mill started producing sugar from 1969-70. The mill has an annual sugar production capacity of 10,160 MT and daily sugarcane threshing capacity of 1,016 MT. The mill is 100% owned by the government under Bangladesh Sugar and Food Industries Corporation. The mill currently employs 810 people. The mill produced 8,158.60 MT of sugar in FY 2007-08 and 4,158.85 MT in FY 2008-09.
Gemcon Ltd. has two electric pole factories at Dhakkamara under Panchagarh Sadar Upazila and Castle Construction Ltd. at Bhajanpur. Jamcon Ltd. started construction of the first electric pole in the district in 1993. The factory is situated on 35.00 acres of land at Dhakkamara under Panchagarh Sadar Upazila. Due to the easy availability of stone in Panchagarh, the raw material for the construction of electric poles can be procured at low cost in this region. At present, the factory employs 1,500 people directly and indirectly.
Gemjute Ltd. was established in 2003 on about 60 acres of land in Moniram Jot area in Maidandighi union under Boda upazila of Panchagarh district. The aim and purpose of Gemjute is to produce environmentally friendly products for the purpose of improving the living standards and sustainable development of the local people through employment. Gemjute jute cloth jute bags, rope, yarn, gunchat bags, canvas etc. are produced. The head office of the company is located in Dhaka.
Martial Distillery was established in 1994 in Dhakkamara Union of Panchagarh Sadar District. Rectified spirits and denatured spirits are produced in the factory from Chittagong. The raw materials for the production of spirits are procured from domestic sugar mills. At present 99 employees are working in this factory.
At the initiative of the district administration, a survey team of the Tea Board under the direction of the Ministry of Commerce came to Panchagarh district in October 1999 to check the feasibility of tea cultivation and collect soil and other information. They said about 40,000 acres of land in Panchagarh district is suitable for tea cultivation. According to him, with the joint funding of the Ministry of Commerce, EC and Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank at a cost of Taka 3.35 crore, the Bangladesh Tea Board under the approval of the Ministry of Commerce for the period January / 2001-December / 2006 under the title of “Small Tea Tea Project” in the northern part of the country. By Tea cultivation in Panchagarh district is of a slightly different nature i.e. khas lands like Srimangal, Sylhet and Chittagong are not in Panchagarh. At the end of 2006, a total of 1,689.48 acres of land was planted in Panchagarh district. Later, in the second phase, the duration of the project was extended till 2014. Most of the lands under tea cultivation in Panchagarh district were previously uncultivated. Tea cultivation in Panchagarh has provided employment to 3,000-4,000 people. At present the total area under tea cultivation in Panchagarh district is 2255.54 acres. In 2009, a total of 656024 kg of made tea was produced in Panchagarh district. To encourage tea cultivation, a total subsidy of Tk. 9,49,000 / – has been provided to small farmers (0-5 acres) at the rate of Tk. 1 per sapling till 2009. To expand tea cultivation, Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank has disbursed a loan of Tk. 12505000.
Mineral resources Of Panchagarh
In the eyes of geologists, Bangladesh is a land covered in vast silt with hard rocky ancient lands in the north-east, south-east, mid-north and north. Panchagarh district is a geographical town in the northern hilly region. During the Tertiary period, many parts of Bangladesh, including West Bengal, were submerged by sea floods and tidal surges. As a result, tertiary marine sedimentary rocks are found throughout much of Greater Bengal. Tertiary stones have been found in Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts adjoining Panchagarh district. Stones of this period include sandstones, limestones, mudstones, etc. This type of stone is found in the terrain of Panchagarh district. The geographical location of the ancient settlements of Bengal is largely determined by the topography and especially the flow of the river. The main hill rivers of Panchagarh district, Karatoya, Dahuk, Chawai, Mahananda, flooded the two families during the monsoon season and brought sand and gravel. In different places of Tentulia upazila of Panchagarh district, stones and panishal wood were found 5/6 feet below the ground. Most of the people of Panchagarh district depend on stone quarrying for their livelihood.
Map Of Panchagarh District
Communication System Of Panchagarh District
The only means of direct access to Panchagarh from the capital Dhaka is by road. If you want to come by rail, you can take the Dinajpur-bound intercity train from Dhaka Kamalapur station, get off at Dinajpur station, take a rickshaw to the central bus terminal and take the Panchagarh-bound Gatelock bus to reach Panchagarh. If you want to come by air, you have to take a plane to Syedpur in Nilphamari district, then you can come to Panchagarh by bus.
If you want to reach Panchagarh by road from Dhaka, you can reach Panchagarh from Shyamoli, College Gate or Gabtoli bus terminal by day or night coach service.
Background of district administration
Panchagarh district is a bizarre town of natural beauty located at the foothills of the Himalayas at the northwestern end of the geographical boundaries of Bangladesh. During the British rule, this district was included in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, India. In 1911, Panchagarh district emerged as a full-fledged police station. At that time the headquarters of the police station was located at Jagdal in the present Panchagarh Sadar upazila. Later, due to environmental and communication reasons, the police station headquarters was shifted from Jagdal to its present location on the banks of Karatoya river. After the partition of India in 1947, Panchagarh police station was included in Thakurgaon subdivision of Dinajpur district. On 1 January 1980, Thakurgaon subdivision formed Panchagarh subdivision with 5 thanas Tetulia, Panchagarh Sadar, Atwari, Boda and Debiganj. The sub-divisional headquarters was established at Panchagarh police station. The first sub-divisional administrator was Mr. Syed Abdur Rashid (01-01-1980 to 31-12-1982). On 1 February 1984, Panchagarh subdivision was upgraded to a district.
Mr. A.S.M. was the first Deputy Commissioner of Panchagarh district. Abdul Halim (01-02-1984 to 16-06-1985). Mr. Mohammad Zahirul Islam is currently serving as the Deputy Commissioner.