Noakhali district is located in the south-eastern part of the administrative part of Chittagong division. The total area of the district is 4202.70 sq. km. Noakhali district is situated between 22° 07’ to 23° 08’ North longitude and 90° 53’ to 91° 27’ east latitude. The distance from capital Dhaka is 171 km and from Chittagong division is 136 km.
Noakhali district is bounded on the north by Comilla, on the south by the Bay of Bengal, on the east by Feni-Chittagong and on the west by Laxmipur district.
There are 9 Upazilas in Noakhali District—Noakhali Sadar, Begumganj, Senbagh, Sonaimuri, Chatkhil, Companiganj, Kabirhat, Subarnachar, and Hatia.
History of Noakhali District
Noakhali district got its status from the time of the initial examination of the establishment of district administration in this country by the East India Company. In 1772, Warren Hastings, the company’s governor general, attempted to introduce the first modern district administration in the country. He divided the whole of Bangladesh into 19 districts and appointed one collector in each district. Kalinda was one of these 19 districts. This district was formed mainly with Noakhali region. In 1773 the district system was abolished and the provincial system was introduced and the districts were made offices under the province.
The district administration system was re-introduced in 1787 and this time the whole of Bangladesh was divided into 14 districts. Among these 14 there was also a district in the Noakhali region called Bhulua. Later in 1792 a new district called Tripura was created and Bhuluya was included in it. Until the establishment of Noakhali district named Bhulua in 1821, this region was part of Tripura district.
Another thing that needs to be mentioned is that the business of district administration in the modern sense was introduced in 1790. Prior to this, the rule of the company was legally only the civil or revenue rule of Bengal. And the responsibility of Nizamat or civil administration was in the hands of the Nawab of Bengal. All the tests carried out by the company so far for the establishment of district administration are only to increase the revenue of the company from land revenue by increasing the efficiency of revenue administration. In 1790, Lord Cornwallis, the governor general of the company, deprived the Nawab of his Nizamat powers and delegated all criminal justice and police powers to the district collector along with the revenue administration. As a result, the Nawabi of Bengal came to an end and the monopoly rule of the East India Company was established over the whole of Bengal. And all the power to run this government is concentrated in the district administration business run by the collector.
Reviewing the above information, the bottom line is that the district administration in Bangladesh was started in 1772 as the sole guarantor of the government to run the revenue administration only. Noakhali district was then established under the name of Kalinda. The next year, the district became an administrative unit under the province. When the district administration was reintroduced in 1787, Noakhali district was established under the name of Bhulua. The modern district administration system was introduced in 1790 and the Noakhali district still existed under the name Bhulua. Noakhali was part of Tripura district from 1792 to 1821. In 1821, Noakhali district was re-established as Bhulua with the status of a district and in the following year, i.e. in 1822, the full-fledged district administration of Noakhali district was introduced.
In conclusion, it can be said that Noakhali district was formed in 1772. Noakhali district was re-established in 1821 after a gap of 29 years (1792-1821). Although the full district administration business was introduced the following year. The above discussion shows that the modern Noakhali district and district administration was established in 1772.
Pottery of Noakhali Zila
The pottery of Bengal is a part of the cottage industry. At one time Bangladesh was proud of this industry. The demand for earthenware for households started from the earliest days of settlement in Noakhali land. Gradually potters came and settled down. As a result, pottery houses can be seen in every upazila of the district. The potters make pottery, mitki, kalas, vessels, boiyams, cobbler lamps, fire pans, etc., from a few men, and make colorful earthen toys for the fair. The women of the house are also pottery workers. They used to make pottery as well as paint different designs. The touch of colors of different designs of potters in the middle of the earthenware material makes our mind enchanted.
Although Noakhali district was formed in the last thirties of the eighteenth century, it was a part of Comilla, the capital of the then state of Tripura.
The Hindu community makes idols out of clay and worships them. Therefore, the contribution of pottery in making idols is undeniable and it has been gaining acceptance from the Hindu community for ages. In Noakhali some artisans of Durga idol come from Dharmapur and all other artisans come from Faridpur district.
Source of used soil:
It was purchased from the land in front of Popular Biscuit Factory adjacent to Zamindar Hat in Noakhali district. Because this soil is not available in this region, it requires sticky soil which is known as virgin soil. The soil here is usually sandy soil.
Liberation war and freedom fighters Of Noakhali District
The ‘War of Liberation of 1971’ is an unforgettable event in the history of the Bengali nation for thousands of years. The unique role and meritorious contribution of the people of Noakhali in the war of liberation will forever be etched in the pages of history as a chapter of heroic pride.
On the eve of the War of Liberation, the Deputy Commissioner of Noakhali convened a discussion meeting at the Circuit House on 26 March. In that meeting, he spontaneously presented the instructions of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman to the people present. The meeting was attended by officials of the district government office and other eminent personalities. Everyone in the meeting took an oath to fight for what they have.
On 26 March, a team was formed at the Town Hall under the leadership of the late Commander Rafiq Ullah, members of the Army, Ansar, Police, EPR, Awami League and Chhatra League. The group initially attacked the Pak army stationed at Feni Technical College. In a short time the party returned to Maizdi, defeating the Western army.
A control room has already been opened at Maijdi Town Hall. The local administration was called upon to help the freedom fighters. The district administration and the police department fully cooperated with the call. Around then the preparations for war began. Arrangements have been made to train all the war-torn young students, workers and old people with the weapons borrowed from Maijdi Police Line (now Police Training Center) magazine. Meanwhile, on the call of MP Nurul Haque Miah to form the Mukti Bahini, on the advice of the Deputy Commissioner, former and retired members of the Army under the signature of District Armed Services Board Secretary Safiqur Rahman were called to report to the training camp. Nurul Haque Mia was given a jeep from the administration to collect members from different places. One was set up at the Primary Training Institute (PTI) in Maijdi, one at Mizan Maidan and Madrasa in Feni and one at Feni School. Thousands of freedom fighters participated in all these training centers.
In the early stages of resistance war was scattered and on a regional basis. Finally, on 17 April, when the helpless government of independent Bangladesh was formally formed in Mujib Nagar, the pace of the liberation war of Bangladesh also started a new chapter. At that time almost all the urban areas of Bangladesh including Dhaka were under the control of the invading forces but the whole area of greater Noakhali was free from Pak aggression. The flag of Bangladesh was flown here till April 22 and the administration here was under the control of the Central Struggle Council of Noakhali.
In the meantime resistance measures were set up at Laksam, Nilkamal, Char Jabbar, Shubhpur etc. to obstruct the arrival of the Pak army. The first clash took place at Baghmara, north of Laksam, on 4 April, led by Subedar Lutfar Rahman and Subedar Samshal Haque. Then on 10 April in a frontal battle at Laksham with only 70 freedom fighters, 27 invading soldiers were killed and 60 were called. On 20 April at Petua in Nath, on 21 April near the Outer Signal at Sonaimuri railway station, on 1 May 15/20 Pak soldiers were killed in the oncoming battle led by Naik Siraj at Bagadia. In that battle 2 heroic freedom fighters were martyred.
On 9 May, fighting broke out again in Bagadia under the command of Subedar Wali Ullah. In this battle, Naik Subedar Wali Ullah was shot in the forehead and he was summoned. On 10 May a battle was fought with the Pak army on the east side of Bangla Bazar. Many of the ASAs left by the Khan army here were captured by the freedom fighters. Besides, fighting broke out again near Ramganj on 13 May, at Bipulasha railway station on 14 May and in Bagadia on 15 May. On May 26, Nayer Abul Hossain, Nayer Subedar Ishaq and Subedar Wali Ullah led by Subedar Lutfar Rahman showed unparalleled bravery in Dalal Bazar. On 28 May, the Sahebzadar bridge was destroyed by Subedar Wali Ulya Mine. As a result, the communication between Laksam and Noakhali was cut off.
Noakhali along with Bilonia was brought under Sector 2 and divided into 5 zones. Major Khaled Mosharraf (April-September) was the head of Sector 2 and Maj. ATM Haider (September-December) was known as K Force. The zones are named A, B, C, D, E and Hatia respectively. Besides, the Noakhali war of liberation was also waged on the side of Dhaka-Chittagong trunk road. Rafiq Ullah was the commander of D Zone in the eastern part of the district headquarters. Abul Qasim became the commander of Mujib’s forces. Companiganj, Chaprashir Hat, Minar Hat, Mridhar Hat, Kalamunsi etc. were under the control of these freedom fighters. Ali Ahmed Chowdhury and other Habildars Siraj Ullah and Shah Alam Bakul were the commanders of the C zone west of the district headquarters. Under this zone were Maijdi, Ramganj, Nchandraganj, Bhabaniganj, Laxmipur, Khalifar Hat, Badherhat, Odar Hat and Bangla Bazar.
Meanwhile, Mr. Mahmudur Rahman Belayet (former MP, Chatkhil Upazila), Commander, BLF, Greater Noakhali, and Momin Ullah, Co-Commander, BLF, organized the BLF and launched a fierce attack on the invading forces. A team of BLF including Mostafa Kamal, Nizam Uddin Fartak under the command of Mr. Abdur Rezzak participated in several battles and achieved success in Sadar East, Kompaniganj and Sonagazi areas. In all these battles, the heroic member of BLFA Saleh Ahmed (after whom Chaumuhani Government College was named), Abdur Rob, Babu, Md. Fartak, Md. Ismail, Abu Nasser and many others were martyred. Ahidur Rahman Adud Sudharam Thana and Obaidul Quader Kompaniganj Thana BALF commanders were appointed at that time. They jointly fought several battles at Sadar, Companyganj, including the battles of Kabirhat, Chaprashir Hat, Basurhat and Talmohammad’s Hat. In the battle of Talmohammad’s Hat, Sadar BLF Commander Ahidur Rahman Adud was martyred and Enam Ahsan was given charge of Sadar East and Fazlul Haque Badal was given charge of Sadar West BLF.
Finally, after the defeat and retreat of the Pak aggressors and their allies in the extreme aggression of the heroic warriors of the combined forces including FF and BLF, innumerable victory processions came from Noakhali Pahanadar Muttu Hall and marched to Noakhali Town. Finally, on December 7, 1971, the unforgettable history of Noakhali Mutti was written in the history of our independence.
Language and culture Of Noakhali District
Due to the multiple socio-economic-political-geographical affiliations, culture takes different dimensions in different regions. So many differences can be noticed in the overall folk culture of a country and also in the folk culture of a particular region. Noakhali district is a part of ancient Samatat district. So naturally a clean impression is observed in the folk culture of the district. Today’s Noakhali, which was once a prosperous and prosperous town, has gone through many ups and downs. If we get a little closer to the folk culture of this region, it is easy to assume that this region has a rich folk culture. Folklore is a major branch of folk culture. Noakhali folk literature is much richer and closer to life than other parts of the country; It is easily inferred from the proverbs, regional songs, rhymes and rhymes of this region. The nature of this will be revealed in the following discussion.
Sports And Recreation Of Noakhali
Notable sports in Noakhali district include football, cricket, volleyball, badminton and athletics. These games were held in different stadiums all over Noakhali. Notable stadiums in the district are Shaheed Bhulu Stadium in the district headquarters, Senabagh and two stadiums in Begumganj Upazila Sadar. Apart from this, various sports are held in the playgrounds of different schools and colleges from district and upazila level to village level.
Cricket leagues, football, volleyball, badminton and athletics competitions are being held every year at the initiative of Noakhali District Sports Association, various non-governmental organizations and individuals. These games are held at different times from district upazila to village level.
Mineral resources On Noakhali
Sundalpur Gas Field
The Sundalpur gas field in Kompaniganj upazila of Noakhali district was discovered in 2012 and started production on March 17 of that year. There are two wells in the gas field and gas is being extracted from one well. The daily output of the gas field is 7 mmcf. The capacity of the process plant of this gas field is 30 MMSCFD.
Map Of Noakhali District
Rivers Of Noakhali
Among the notable rivers of Noakhali, Chhota Feni, Dakatia is one of them. The robbers entered Bangladesh from the Indian state of Tripura via Bagchhara in Comilla. The length of Dakatiya river is 207 km. Of which 180 km has flowed in Comilla and 27 km in Noakhali. The small river Feni flows from the hilly region of Tripura in India through the south-eastern region of Comilla and enters Noakhali through a place called Gunbati. The length of the small Feni river is 195 km. Of which 100 km has flowed in Comilla and 95 km in Noakhali.
Business trade Of Noakhali
Noakhali has long been neglected and backward in terms of industry. Although the district has a tradition of public resources, it goes without saying that there are no public or private initiatives in industrialization. Many residents of this district have set up large scale industries in different parts of the country. But the people of this district are wandering around the country and abroad in search of work. Despite so much reluctance and neglect, some factories have been set up. The following is a brief introduction to some of the heavy industry establishments and some potential fish farming projects in the future:
Delta Jute Mills Ltd.
Greater Noakhali Traditional Delta Jute Mills Ltd. was established in 1962. The mill was nationalized in 1972. Capital of Tk. 5 crore which is equivalent to 50,000,000 ordinary shares at the rate of Tk. 10 each. Milkhana was started with an area of 60 acres. About 5,000 workers have the opportunity to work in the factory. The mill has now reopened after a long hiatus due to the complexity of the owner-worker relationship. The mill is currently being privately owned.