Dhaka District is a very ancient administrative area of Bangladesh with a history of several centuries. Geographically, the district is located in the north latitude from 23˚22′30′′ to 24˚22′20′′ north latitude and between 89˚41′6′′ to 90˚59′23′′ east longitude in the center of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. There is no reliable information about the origin of the name Dhaka. However, the present name Dhaka is the name of Dhaka Division, Dhaka District and the capital of independent sovereign Bangladesh.
In the past, Dhaka District consisted of a large area and was known by various names. At present it consists of a small area and the area is only 1463.60 sq. Km. Mr. Gazipur and Tangail districts to the north, Munshiganj and Rajbari districts to the south, Narayanganj district to the east and Manikganj district to the west. The district headquarters i.e. Nagar Dhaka is one of the major megacities of the present world.
Dhaka district has witnessed the rise, change and evolution of many civilizations and cultures in its long history. And all this has had a tremendous impact on the district and the people of the district. However, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam have had the most significant impact on the region and its people. Monuments of all these cultures and religions are observed in every part of the region. Dhaka district is basically a flat land and is washed away by many people and many rivers.
The northern part of the district is slightly elevated. The district is located in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, which is a megacity and the main administrative, industrial and commercial center of Bangladesh. The rest of the district is a fertile agricultural land. Among the agricultural products, paddy, jute, sugarcane, mustard etc. are the main ones. The climate of the district is balanced. The highest temperature is 108˚ Fahrenheit, the lowest is 40˚ Fahrenheit and the average temperature is 78.02˚ Fahrenheit. The effect of monsoon is a lot of rainfall. The maximum rainfall is 103.86 inches, the minimum is 47.13 inches and the average rainfall is 73.36 inches.
The people of Dhaka are very friendly, at the same time hard working people who have ultimate success in various arts. Dhaka district is now the most densely populated area in the world. The majority of the people of the district belong to the Muslim community but people of Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and other communities also live here. Communal harmony is an important feature of the people of the district and all residents and communities take part in religious, social and cultural events.
The main religious ceremonies of Muslims are Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha and Muharram; Durga Puja of Hindus, Janmashtami; Buddhist full moon for Buddhists and big day for Christians.
At present, the society of Dhaka district is not based on religion or caste as in the past. It has consistently developed economics and education. However, economic inequality is gradually increasing in the life of the society. Economic differences are developing between rural people and urban people. Economic inequality is constantly increasing in the cities, especially in the Dhaka megacity. The people of this district are peace loving and the law and order situation is satisfactory.
Introduction of Dhaka district
The capital of Bangladesh, gained some importance in the pre-Mughal period, but the city rose to prominence in history during the Mughal period. The origin of the name Dhaka is not clear. Some of the prevailing views on this are as follows: a) At one time there were many dhak trees (buti fudosa) in this region; B) On the day of the inauguration of the capital, drums were played here under the direction of Islam Khan; C) a Prakrit language called ‘Dhaka language’ was prevalent here; D) In Rajatarangini, the word Dhaka is referred to as ‘observation center’ or Dhaka is the eastern state of Samudragupta mentioned in the Allahabad inscription. There are two mosques in Dhaka and one in Mirpur as archeological sites of the pre-Mughal period. The earliest of these dates back to 1456 AD (Joao de Barros sees Dhaka as an important place and indicates its location on a map drawn by him in 1550 AD). Dhaka Baju is mentioned as a pargana.In 1610, Islam Khan moved Chishti Subah from Rajmahal, the capital of Bengal, to Dhaka and renamed it Jahangirnagar after the emperor.
Historical Events and Administrative Evolution
In the pre-Muslim period, the present Dhaka district was part of an administrative region known as ‘Aibanga’, part of which was sometimes known as Samatat and sometimes as Harikal. Sen ended his reign and started the Muslim reign. The Muslim rulers established their capitals at various locations around Dhaka. Some traces of these capital cities can still be seen in Bikrampur, Bhawal and Sonargaon. Although the Mughals snatched the rule of Bengal from the Pathan Sultan in 1585, they had to gain enough momentum to control the landlords or bhuiyads of Bengal. The town was the administrative headquarters and the residence of the subahdar and other employees. For personal and political reasons, Prince Shuja (1839-59) moved the capital. When the subahdari was transferred, Dhaka lost its importance as a capital and became a local administrative center. Later, the subahdari Shah Shuja started construction work in Dhaka. Mir Abul Qasim, the Diwan of Shah Sujar, built a spacious building called Bara in 1645 AD. The building is located on the banks of the Buriganga and south of the present Chawkbazar. The name Mirjumla is associated with several constructions in the history of Dhaka, first the Mirjumla Gate and later the Ramna Gate. The gate is located on Mymensingh Road near Curzon Hall and west of the old High Court building. Subaddar Shaista Khan was a renowned builder. Of course he also built a katra. It is known as Chhota Katra, the name given to Shah Sujar to distinguish it from Big Katra. He also built several mosques and mausoleums. Among the mosques, Chawkbazar Mosque, Babubazar Mosque and Satgumbuj Mosque are famous. The most notable of these tombs is the tomb of Bibi Pari. Due to its location along the river, Dhaka was a center of local trade in the pre-Mughal period. Because Dhaka was a manufacturing center. The cotton fabric produced here was of high quality and there was a lot of demand for it abroad. Different types of cotton cloth known as muslin were exported. European companies imported large quantities of gold and silver for these purchases. The decline of political power of the Nawabs of Bengal and the rise of the East India Company dimmed the administrative importance of Dhaka in the late eighteenth century. In addition, the East India Company’s commercial and manufacturing policies destroyed the financial base of the city. This journey of urban development has been going on continuously since then. Administrative Progress Dhaka was previously the center of district administration. It became the headquarters of a large division called Dhaka Division in 1829. The administrative importance of Dhaka then increased and by 185 the city of Dhaka was established as the largest civilian center in the province of Bengal after Calcutta. The administrative importance of Dhaka increased dramatically in 1905-11 when it was made the capital of a new province called East Bengal and Assam. A Lieutenant Governor with a High Court and a Secretariat was appointed. After the end of British colonial rule in 1947 and the establishment of the independent state of Pakistan, Dhaka became the capital of a new province called East Bengal. From that time onwards, Dhaka was not only the administrative headquarters of the new province but also the seat of the Legislative Assembly and the Jatiya Sangsad. As the capital of an independent sovereign state, Dhaka is regarded as one of the most important centers of political, administrative and economic, social, educational and cultural activities.
At first glance, the data of Dhaka District is as follows:
Area: 1463.70 sq km
Total population: 1 crore 25 lakh 16 thousand 3 hundred 81
men = 8,13,463
women = 56,03,908
Literacy rate: 60.50%
Tsex ratio: 119
Population density: 6,229 (per sq km)
Population growth rate: 3.48 (per year)
Urbanization (%): 6.36
Number of upazilas: 5
Geographical units: 5
police stations: 41
City corporations: 2
Towers : 974
Tigers Number: 1,999
TCT Ward: 92
TCT Mahalla: 655
Tipoor Ward: 26
Tipoor Mahalla: 133
(According to Census and Household Census 2011- Adjusted Figure: BBS)
Number of Primary Schools: 628
Number of Government Primary Schools: 69
Number of Temples: 607
Number of Tigers: 33
Timothy Amount of Arable Land: 109129 ha.
Total Number of Roads: 1596
Total Length: 4108 km
Raw Road: 3148 km
Halfway: 546 km
Brick Road: 399 km
Strong RCC Road: 16 km
Number of Food Warehouses: 06, Capacity;
Number of wetlands: 12 (above 20 acres)
Total number of mouzas: 1,098
Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh.