Comilla district (Cumilla) extends from 23° 01′ to 23° 47′ 36″ north latitude and from 90° 39′ to 91° 22′ east longitude. The equator crosses Comilla district.
Comilla district is bounded on the north by Brahmanbaria district, on the south by Feni and Noakhali districts, on the east by Tripura in India, on the west by Chandpur, Narayanganj and Munshiganj districts.
There are 17 Upazilas in Comilla Zila—Adarsh Sadar, Comilla Sadar Dakshin, Chauddagram, Laksam, Baruda, Nangalkot, Manoharganj, Chandina, Titas, Daudkandi, Homna, Meghna, Muradnagar, Debidwar, Burichang, Brahmanpara and Lalmai.
The area of Cumilla district is 3087.33 sq km. The length of the international border is 108 kilometers
Location and soil structure
Comilla district extends from 23° 01′ to 23° 47′ 36″ north latitude and from 90° 39′ to 91° 22′ east longitude. The Tropic of Cancer crosses Comilla district. The rest is plain.
The oldest rock in the district is found in the depths of the Lalmai Hills. Miocene rocks have been found dating back to three and a half to three and a half million years.
The geographical history of Comilla district can be traced back to the ancient maps of East India compiled by Pargitar. Roughly in the basin of the river Lohitya, the region of Pragjyotisha and the foothills of the eastern part was known as Kirats. The river Lohitya is the present Brahmaputra. The plain in the middle of the district – the Chandina flood plain was formed at that time by silt carried by the Brahmaputra. Later, however, the river moved west. It is through this Kiratas that the course of the Titus River is marked. It may therefore be surmised that the present-day Comilla district is made up of most of the region of Kirats, the region east of Pragjyotisha.
Shape Of Cumilla
The district is roughly triangular in shape. The south side is wide, the north side is narrow and its head is slightly tilted towards the east. It extends from the Meghna Plain to the foothills of the Tripura Hills. The average height of the foothills of the Tripura Hills from the coast is about 25 feet, and the average height of the western part of the Meghna Plain is about 5 feet. Thus the slope of this plain of the district is mild and lies to the west on the west side of the town of Comilla, the whole plain except the low lying wetlands of Lalmai hills and Brahmanbaria subdivision to the north-south can generally be called a flat land with west-slope. In geology and topography, it was called the Tippera proper. Most of the plains are submerged in 5 to 10 feet of water during the rainy season. If it is under water in the rainy season, not much sediment accumulates in this plain. Because the water of Meghna does not carry so much sediment. But this submerged soil is well suited for cultivation as it stays wet for some time.
Climate, rainfall and temperature of Comilla
This district belongs to the tropical region for crossing the Cancer Tropic Line over Comilla district. So naturally tropical monsoon climate is observed here. The district receives ample rainfall during the monsoon season and the winters are fairly dry. The average annual rainfall here is 80 inches to 120 inches. Rainfall is very low in winter, it is not the same. The average temperature of the district is 78 degrees Fahrenheit. The average temperature in May is 86 degrees Fahrenheit. In winter, the month of January averages 66 degrees Fahrenheit. However, in April-May sometimes the temperature is 107 degrees Fahrenheit and from December to February it is sometimes 45 degrees to 42 degrees Fahrenheit.
Forest Resources Of Comilla District
There are no significant forests in Comilla district. At one time the Lalmai-Mainamati hills were rich in forest resources. Even if you say no now. Some forest resources can be seen in Kotbari area of Comilla and some parts of Chauddagram police station. However, due to the warming and humidity of the climate, the fertility of the alluvial soil and other factors, there is a considerable abundance of plants in the district. Plants include Mango, Blackberry, Jackfruit, Tamarind, Bell, Butt or Ashwattha, Dates, Coconut, Palm, Neem, Raina or Pitraj, Shimultula, Mandar, Supari, Kadamba, Kadai, Shewra, Hijal, Gab, Grapefruit, Cool, Wild Jamrul , Jarul, Olive, Mango, Gammar or Medda, Shawl, Shishu, Zhou etc. are notable.
History Of Comilla District
The present Comilla is a district under the Chittagong Division. In ancient times it belonged to the Samatata district and later it became part of the state of Tripura. Tripura has been under the rule of the Gupta emperors since the 5th century AD, as far as is known from the ancient relics found in the region. According to historians, the region was ruled by Buddhist deities from the seventh to the middle of the eighth century. Comilla came under the rule of the kings of Harikela in the ninth century. Archaeological evidence suggests that the region was ruled by the Chandra dynasty for about one and a half centuries from the tenth to the middle of the eleventh century.
It came under the East India Company in 1765 after being ruled by the Mughals in the intervening period. To facilitate the collection of revenue, the company appointed a caretaker in the province in 1769 AD. At that time Comilla belonged to Dhaka province. In 1776 AD Comilla was brought under the Collector. The journey of the Tripura Collectorate began in 1790 with the formation of the Tripura District. In 1793, under the Third Regulation, a civil judge was appointed for the district of Tripura and in the same year he was given magisterial powers. In 1837 the posts of Magistrate and Collector were separated. In 1859, the two terms were merged again. After the partition of the country in 1947, the district of Tripura was renamed Comilla in 1960 and since then the post of District Magistrate and Collector has been renamed as Deputy Commissioner. In 1984, Chandpur and Brahmanbaria, two subdivisions of Comilla, were reorganized as separate districts.
Tradition Of Comilla Zila
Khadi of Comilla
From ancient times the handloom weaving industry in this sub-continent has been world famous. This weaving cloth was always exported abroad to meet the demand of the country. A professional community was then involved with the weaving industry. They were called ‘Yugi’ or ‘Debnath’ in the local language. During Gandhiji’s non-cooperation movement in British India, the khadi industry gained rapid popularity in the region due to historical reasons. At that time khadi cloth was made from Rangamati cotton. At that time there were many Yugi or Debnath families living in Chandina, Debidwar, Burichang and Sadar police stations of the district. Gandhiji’s call for a boycott of foreign textiles was well received in Comilla at that time and the production of khadi textiles also increased. Khadi cloth of Comilla spread in different parts of the country. This cloth gained popularity as Khadi of Comilla.
The Abhay Ashram in Comilla, founded by Gandhiji, played an important role in the spread of the Khadi industry. Abhay Ashram was established as a social welfare institution in disguise as a place of refuge for the practice cycle. The call for the boycott of foreign clothes began when the spinning of spinning began at a massive rate. Abhay Ashram then started making khadi cloth in addition to selling it in the cheap spinning wheel market. Khadi cloth made in different villages also started to be marketed through Abhay Ashram at this time.
According to the information received, in 1926-27, an 8-arm-long dhoti was sold for only five hundred Taka. At that time Comilla Abhay Ashram sold khadi cloth worth about 9 lakh Taka. It is known from the writings of Parimal Dutt, a late Rabindra Sangeet scholar and an activist of Abhay Ashram that even though there was a huge demand, that demand was not fully met by Abhay Ashram.
Due to the rapid demand for khadi, holes were drilled in the ground under the foot paddles for fast weaving. The cloth that was produced from this hole or shaft is khadi. Thus the origin of the name Khadi. Gradually this cloth came to be known as khadi or khaddar.
The post-independence period was the golden age of khadi industry. Crisis comes immediately after this. The war-torn textile mills were then closed. There is a lot of pressure on handloom weaving in import dependent countries to meet the demand for textiles. Although the production of khadi is not more than the demand of the country or the people, weavers in the surrounding villages around Chandina Bazar started making sheets, curtains and cloths. Before independence, the demand for khadi was widespread as winter clothing. Due to the demand for khadi textiles, some of the past governments in the region have taken advantage of the licenses of yarn and dyes to loot profits as middlemen. The lack of cheap yarn and dye forced the real weavers to change their main occupation at that time. In the mid-eighties, the country witnessed a boom in the power loom based textile industry. As a result, the spread of Atula varieties of cloth took place at a huge rate. Increased use of polyester, rayon, viscose acrylic yarns. Duty free foreign garments continue to be imported for export oriented garments. In this way, the cloth called khadi which was spread from the valley is lost in the pit of extinction.
Although the khadi industry of Comilla flourished, it was mainly a cottage industry. Rural brides would get extra income by cutting the yarn in a spinning wheel and selling it to the weavers. The old man who could not work on the farm to eat, the teenager who did not get the opportunity to sell labor outside, also got the opportunity to earn extra income by spinning the spinning wheel.
Rasmalai of Comilla
In the nineteenth century, Ras Malai was introduced by the Ghosh community of Tripura. At that time, the task of supplying sweets to various social events was mainly in their hands. At that time rasgolla coated with Malaikari was made. Later, rasgolla dipped in latex made with milk fuel was introduced. Gradually that late rasgolla became smaller and turned into today’s rasmalai.
Pottery of Comilla
Comilla pottery is one of the ancient traditions of Bengali folk art. Among the household utensils made in Comilla since ancient times, jugs, pots, jars, inns or lids, shankis, dishes, cups, vessels, incense burners, various earthen toys and fruits, animals and birds were famous. However, with the touch of modernity, it gradually became dreamy. In 196After the war, when the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman gave a grant of Tk 75,000, the association turned around again. In the financial year 2009-2010, with the financial support of the Ministry of Cooperatives, a pottery training center has been set up here. Here at different times of the year 20 people are trained in several batches. On the one hand, after a long period of training, one Kumar became a skilled artist.1, Dr. Akhtar Hamid Khan established the Vijaypur Rudrapal Pottery Cooperative Society. In 1971 the Pak army set it on fire.
After the war, when the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman gave a grant of Tk 75,000, the association turned around again. In the financial year 2009-2010, with the financial support of the Ministry of Cooperatives, a pottery training center has been set up here. Here at different times of the year 20 people are trained in several batches. On the one hand, after a long period of training, one Kumar became a skilled artist.
The potters are currently making flower tubs, sculptures, ceramics, durable sanitary latrine wheels, water tanks, tiles, etc., in addition to various showpieces.
Language And Culture Of Comilla
The geography and geographical location of Comilla district has played a role in shaping the language and culture of the people of this district. Located in the southeastern part of Bangladesh, this district is surrounded by the Indian state of Tripura, Dhaka Division and other districts of Chittagong Division. The main features of the language are the same as in other districts of Bangladesh, but there is some variation. For example, in spoken language, mahaprana sounds are largely absent, i.e. there is a tendency to simplify the language. The languages of Noakhali area have a lot in common with the regional languages of Daudkandi, Titas, Meghna, Homna and other upazilas of Comilla. Experts believe that the nature of the Meghna-Gomti river and the behavior, food, language and culture of the people of Comilla at the foot of the Lalmai hills have been greatly influenced.
A review of the history of this area shows that the civilization of Comilla is very ancient. Archaeological finds in the area and the ruins of Buddhist monasteries are prominent as carriers of ancient civilization. There are also some small ethnic groups living in the area who have their own language and culture. Comilla’s contribution to the cultural sphere is also undeniable. Comilla is surrounded by the memory of world famous musicians like Sursamrat Ustad Alauddin Khan, Ustad Ayet Ali Khan, Ustad Akbar Ali Khan. Ustad Aftabuddin Khan of Comilla invented the instrument to look like a sarod. He is also the creator of a musical instrument called Megh Dabur Yantra. Ustad Alauddin Khan Chandra Sarang and Ustad Ayet Ali Khan invented the modern sarod. The bamboo flute of Comilla is famous all over the subcontinent.
Raga Sangeet created by Ustad Alauddin Khan, Hemmatma Durgeshwari, Megh Bahar, Prabhatkeli, Hem Behag, Madan Manjari Raga and mixed raga created by Ustad Ayet Ali Khan still have a strong influence in the classical lyric style of the sub-continent. Ustad Ali Akbar Khan created 10 new rages. These are Raga Chandranandan, Gurumanjari, Lajvanti, Mishra Shivaranjani, Bhupamand, Medhabi, Alamgiri, Malayalam Smriti, Kushiyogi and Raga Chowranga Kalyan.
Natural Resources Of Comilla
Comilla district is rich in natural resources. Two natural gas fields have been discovered in Bakhrabad of Muradnagar police station near Brahmanbaria in the district. Gas is currently being extracted from 08 wells here. The first gas extraction started in 1984. Estimated gas reserves are 30/35 million cubic feet.
Besides, silica sand has been discovered in Chauddagram upazila and special adhesive clay is scattered in this district, which is used to make daily pottery. There are also groundwater resources that help in irrigation.
Rivers Of Comilla District
There are a significant number of rivers in Comilla. The main river here is Gumti. There are two more rivers called Dakatiya and Kankari. Among them Dakatiya is a new river and Kankari is an ancient river. Gumti originated in the hills of the Indian state of Tripura. The length of Gumti is 130.122 km. It flows through Sadar, Burichang, Brahmanpara, Debidwar, Muradnagar of Comilla and joins Meghna through Daudkandi. There are 41 km of flood management dams on the right bank and 34.75 km on the left bank of Gumti.
Trade And Business Of Comilla District
Turkish company Messrs. Star Carpet Pvt. Ltd. will set up a carpet manufacturing plant in Comilla Export Processing Area. The foreign-owned company will produce and export all types of carpets with an investment of 2.035 million. Messrs. Star Carpet will create employment opportunities for 689 Bangladeshi citizens. On this occasion, a lease agreement was signed between BEPZA and Messrs. Star Carpet Pvt. Ltd. at the Executive Office of Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority in Dhaka on 27 September. BEPZA member (investment development) said. Moezzadeen Ahmed and Sami Izmirli, managing director of Messrs. Star Carpet, signed the lease agreement on behalf of their respective organizations. BEPZA Executive Chairman Major General ATM Shahidul Islam, NDU, PSC, AZM Azizur Rahman and other BEPZA officials were present on the occasion.
Communication System To Comilla
Comilla’s transport and communication system is very good. The Grand Trunk Road, one of the oldest roads in the subcontinent, passes through the town of Comilla. At present, the most important highway in Bangladesh, the Dhaka-Chittagong highway, passes through the city of Comilla. The distance from the capital Dhaka to Comilla is 97 kilometers. It can be traveled by road or rail. However, to reach Comilla from Dhaka by rail, one has to cover a total distance of 197 km.
The local administration, RHD, LGED and the municipality supervise all the roads. RHD and LGED have their regional headquarters in Comilla.
Comilla has a total of 1806 km of roads. Of these, 1219 km are paved and 587 km are unpaved roads. The length of the railway is 108 km. There is an airport in Comilla. Which is no longer in use.